Animation Unit

Twelve Principles of Animation
(from The Illusion Of Life, by Thomas & Johnston)

  1. Squash and Stretch – object flattens as it hits a surface, stretches as it bounces away
  2. Anticipation – preparation for movement (followed by action, follow-through)
  3. Staging – presenting actions so people know where to focus – e.g., one at a time
  4. Straight Ahead and Pose to Pose – in Flash, frame-by-frame animation (vs. tween)
  5. Follow Through and Overlapping – arm moves after throw, ears flap while walking
  6. Slow In and Slow Out – in Flash, easing
  7. Arcs – human movement happens in arcs, not straight lines
  8. Secondary Action – fingers drum while a person talks, movement in background
  9. Timing – a fast movement often doesn’t mean the same thing as a slow one
  10. Exaggeration – carefully exaggerated movement seems more realistic or humorous
  11. Solid Drawing – form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimensions
  12. Appeal – capturing the audience’s interest through charm, simplicity, etc


The Persistence of Vision Theory: How do our eyes see movement? The human eye has sensors that retain an image for a moment, so the brain continues to perceive an image for a fraction of a second after the image has passed. If the eye sees a series of still images very quickly one picture after another, with a tiny break in between to register each image, then the images will appear to move because they “overlap” in the brain. Our eyes cannot perceive the difference between separate images, so we are tricked into thinking we have seen movement!

Traditional forms of Animation:

The following terms will be presented below. Cell, Cell Animation. Frame by frame, optical illusion, armature, frame rate, fps, sequential order, keyframes, thaumatrope, flipbook, stopmotion, clay animation, phenakistoscope, and zoetrope

2D Digital Animation:



Every traditional form of animation must be recorded digitally and archived in your course portfolio. Original animation objects must be submitted to your teacher for assessment (be sure to record your name on it). Make sure you create/include a title slide for each digital animation. Your title should include: student`s name, course code: ANHR35s/MOHR35S Unit 1, Activity #, 2012. This can be done in Premiere, MovieMaker or created by hand.